Добрый день! Нужно написать научную статью на английском на экологическую тему, раскрыв ниже указанные пункты. Большинство материалов я предоставлю. Объём работы 10 страниц. Срок исполнения до 11 августа.
- The traditional livestock sector(s), in terms of both pastoralism and small-scale farming, and the importance of small-scale production for livelihoods and food sovereignty, also from a gender perspective.
In order to provide a research on this point I would like to start with the definitions of the most important terms like traditional farming, pastoralism and small-scale farming and their different types. I will gather statistical data concerning Russia concerning small-scale agriculture. I will cover the issue of its importance for the human livelihoods (availability of jobs, decrease of rural exodus, protect the local communities and etc.), for the environment (e.g. conservation of biodiversity, protection of the natural resources, etc.) and for the social aspects, like, for example, for quality of the products. All these aspects will be also considered from the gender perspectives where gender disparities directly affect women's potential for achieving the kind of economic autonomy they need to provide a better quality of life for themselves and their dependents.
- Overall consumption and production patterns (rates of meat/dairy consumption increase, industrialisation, the role of urbanisation, amount of meat, dairy and feedstocks imported and exported).
Providing information on this point, first of all, I would like to give the statistical data on the production and consumption of meat and dairy products in Russia. Also I would like to go through the factors which determine the consumption and production patterns (e.g. increase of income, industrialization, urbanization and others) and show how they affect these patterns. Moreover, I would like to research the import and export rates of meat, dairy products and livestock in Russia in order to get the overview of the situation on the market and to evaluate the consequences which are correlated to the human livelihoods and the environment.
- Environmental and social impacts of these consumption and production patterns.
After conducting the research of the consumption and production patterns, I will provide the overview, how these patterns influence the social aspects of the population and the environment. For example, I will show, how the urbanization (which stimulates improvements in infrastructure), permits trade in perishable goods and therefore provides a varied diet rich in animal proteins and fats, and encourages the consumption of meat and dairy products) can influence these patterns and how they, in turn, affect the environmental and social aspects.
- Case studies on at least two or (preferably) three corporate giants that have clearly taken over the livestock sector in the relevant countries, preferably one poultry company, one pork company and one beef and/or dairy company.
In order to cover this point I will take several big companies in the Russian market which are responsible for the production of meat and dairy products. The first company is “EURODON”. It is the biggest producer of the poultry (turkey) in Russia. The second company is Holding Miratorg - the major investor in the Russian agribusiness industry. It produces pork, beef, poultry and feedstuff. The third company is called Cherkizovo Group. It is also one of the Russia’s largest producers of meat products, serving Russia’s chicken, pork and processed meat markets and being the country’s largest feed manufacturer. The fourth company is EkoNiva-APK - one of the Russia’s top three milk producers. I will gather the information about these companies concerning their rates of production and possible import/export figures. I will choose 3 of these 4 for my report.
- Influence of different trade agreements and trade negotiations on corporate concentration in the livestock sector.
I will gather the information concerning different actual trade agreements (e.g. FTA, WTO agreements) and analyze their influence on the meat and livestock sectors in Russia.
- The problems with co-existence of the two models.
Conducting the research of this point, I will focus on the pro/contra arguments of the small-scale and industrial food production. I will try to figure out the problems which occur by co-existing these two models in Russia.
- Сoncrete policy recommendations in terms of reducing corporate control over the livestock sector, redirecting perverse incentives that promote industrial versus small-scale food production and creating consumer awareness of need for better balanced diets.
In this point I will conduct the research about the recommendations which should help to promote the small-scale food production and make the consumers be more aware of what they eat. For example, it is important to communicate consumers that only local small-scale food production can guarantee food quality in terms of taste and safety (for example avoiding long trips, so to reduce the risk of microbial growth and degradation). It is also avoids the introduction of unhealthy compounds, such as preservatives and dangerous species like GMOs, which leads to a consequent loss of biodiversity, and increases the dependence of farmers on big foreign companies.